Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can present as acute pneumonia. Differentiation of tuberculous from non-tuberculous community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important challenge in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was the comparison between characteristics of tuberculous and non-tuberculous CAP patients.

Methods: In this prospective and observational study, all adult patients (aged ≥16 years) who were admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad (Iran) with the diagnosis of CAP, between February 2013 and January 2014, were enrolled. Clinical, radiological, and microbiological data of the patients were collected and reviewed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 14 software and R programming language.

Results: We studied 120 patients with diagnosis of acute CAP including 21 (17.5%) tuberculous and 99 (82.5%) non-tuberculous CAP. The etiologies of CAP in the latter group were as follow: S. pneumoniae 29 (29.3%), followed by S. aureus, polymicrobial including anaerobes, and other agents. The diagnosis of pneumonia remained unknown in 49 (40%) patients. We found approximately equal gender distribution among two study groups (14/21 vs. 61/99, 63.6% vs. 62.9%, p=0.948). Fifty percent of patients with tuberculous CAP had opioid addiction that was more frequent compared with non-tuberculous group (p=0.240). 52.4%, 63.2%, 30%, and 90% of patients with tuberculous CAP had severe presentation based on PSI, IDSA/ATS, CURB-65, and SMART-COP, respectively. 

Conclusions: The diagnosis of TB should be considered in all patients who presented with CAP in endemic regions.  It could not be differentiated from other causes of pneumonia on clinical and radiological grounds.


Keywords: Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Community-Acquired Pneumonia
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October-December 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 4)


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


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Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

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Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: