Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of combined phacoemulsification plus Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with deep sclerectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) and sub-flap implantation of amniotic membrane for the management of uncontrolled, chronic, primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

Methods: This prospective study included 41 patients with chronic, primary, open-angle glaucoma and cataract uncontrolled with medical treatment who underwent combined phacoemulsification augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) application and amniotic membrane implantation under the scleral flap. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, glaucoma medications, stabilization of visual field, complications, and viability of the success rate were assessed a 36-month follow-up period. 

Results: The mean age of cases was 54.8 ± 5.3 years. Sixty-one percent of cases were males, and 39% were females. The mean IOP decreased from 23.8 ± 1.8 mmHg preoperatively to 16.8 ± 2.3 mmHg postoperatively. The overall success rate was 97.5, 95, and 92.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. The overall success rate was 90% in the first year, but that decreased to 85.3 and 78% in the second and third year, respectively. Qualified success was 7.5, 10, and 14.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. Failure was recorded as 2.5, 5, and 7.3% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. IOP reduction was sustained through the follow-up period. Visual acuity improved from 0.13 ± 0.06 to 0.9 ± 0.07 (p < 0.001). The visual field improved significantly in the first assessment, from 14.0 ± 2.7 preoperatively to 12.6 ± 2.6 at three months postoperatively (p < 0.001), after which it became stable for the remainder of the follow-up period. One hundred percent of cases were on three anti-glaucoma drugs preoperatively, while postoperatively, 12.2% were on three drugs, 4.2% were on two drugs, and 82.9% were controlled without anti-glaucoma treatment. There were minor postoperative complications all of which were minor, such as a spike in the post-operative IOP and the formation of fibrinous material in the anterior chamber, both of which were treated medically without any adverse effects on the final results.

Conclusion: Amniotic membrane implantation in conjunction with MMC application may be an effective alternative to expensive implants in deep sclerectomy combined with phacoemulsification, and this approach can be used safely in advanced cases.


Keywords: phacoemulsification, amniotic membrane implantation, MMC application, intraocular pressure, deep sclerectomy, non-penetrating glaucoma surgery
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