Introduction: Smoking tobacco by hookah may seriously affect the health of smokers and those exposed to smoke. This study aimed to compare the effect of educational digital media versus pamphlets on the reduction of hookah use among male high school students in Zahedan, Iran.

Methods: A semi-experimental study was conducted on 200 male high school students of Zahedan using multi-stage random sampling for three months in 2014. The samples were divided into two groups - the test (educated using digital films) and the control (educated using pamphlets) groups, and measurement was performed before and after intervention. The data collection instrument was a 53-item questionnaire consisting of demographic, knowledge, attitude, behavior and self-efficacy questions. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The results before and after the intervention were analyzed using SPSS version 18, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson-product moment correlation coefficient and Chi square test as well as one directional variance analysis.

Results: There was no significant relation between demographic and basic variables before intervention (p>0.05); however, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and hookah using preventive behavior were significantly different between the two groups after the intervention (p<0.05). Moreover, there was a meaningful relation among the demographic characteristics including age and attitude- the previous educational year's GPA and self-efficacy; and there was a significant relation between father education and self-efficacy. Moreover, there was a significant relation between the main variables of the study, concerning the relation of knowledge and attitude- knowledge and self-efficacy, and attitude and self-efficacy.

Conclusion: Educational digital media is more efficient than the pamphlet in the reduction of hookah use among the students; and that the media may be applied to prevent of hookah use among students.


Keywords: Digital media, Education, Students, Hookah
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