Introduction: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is alkylating agent and the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for various types of cancer; it causes severe toxicity. The aim of the research was to assess the protective effect of lemon fruit extract (LFE) against the side effects of the anti-cancer drug “cyclophosphamide” (CP). 

Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2015. Thirty male mice were divided into six groups: group A (control): intraperitoneal injection of saline, group B: oral LFE (10ml/kg), group C: intraperitoneal injection of CP (10 mg/kg), group D: intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 mg/kg), group E: intraperitoneal injection of CP (10 mg/kg) and oral LFE (10 ml/kg), and group F: intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 mg/kg) and oral LFE (10 ml/kg). All groups were treated daily for five consecutive days. 

Results: The results of the group treated with the drug C and D was that, in their intestines, the effect was uneven between a severe to a sharp effect, and there was a lack of dense connective tissue and its collagen fibers and fat cells, the intestinal glands or crypt of Lieberkühn appeared few in number and distorted in composition when compared with control A, as the pancreas appeared divided into several lobes containing small numbers of pancreatic Acini, padded with secretory pyramid-shaped cells, although some of them  appeared exaggerated. While treatment in group E and F resulted in the intestines and pancreas appearing to be semi-normal; regarding the pancreas, it showed an observed improvement more than the response of the intestines.

Conclusion: The results support the protective effect of lemon fruit extract against CP-induced intestinal and pancreatic injury.


Keywords: cyclophosphamide, lemon fruit, histopathological changes, intestines, pancreas, mice
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