Background: Direct clinical assessment is the mainstay of evaluation in dentistry education. An effective evaluation method in prosthodontics should be equally valid and consistent; however, this is not attained frequently. A limited number of studies have applied an analytic evaluation in prosthodontics.
Objective: To compare the intra- and inter-raters’ variability in two evaluation methods: glance and grade (global), and checklist and criteria (analytical). Moreover, to identify the components of the analytical evaluation system and its applicability.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on outpatients attending removable prosthodontics clinics affiliated with King Abdulaziz University (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) from December 2017 to April 2018. Two prosthodontist examiners evaluated a sample of 35 complete denture cases (20 male, 15 female) twice over a period of five months. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement were computed using reliability test (interclass correlation coefficient ICC). Data were analyzed in IBM SPSS version 23, using paired-samples t-test, weighted kappa, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05.
Results: The intra-rater agreement for the first and second exposures under global and analytical evaluation methods with Examiner A was outstanding with 90.7% and 99.8% agreement respectively. While with Examiner B, global was lower but still in the acceptable range with about 78.1%, and 96.1% for the analytical evaluation. Inter-rater reliability analysis showed high agreement between the two raters in the first exposure of the analytical evaluation with 97.3%, while it was 87.5% in the global evaluation. This trend goes the same with analytical in the second exposure with 93.2%; however, the second exposure under global evaluation failed the cut off, which is only 56.6% agreement. In evaluation of inter-raters agreement, the second exposure of the global method demonstrated inconsistency between the two examiners (p=0.002), while the analytical second exposure demonstrated more homogeneity (p=0.050). Intra-rater variability between first and second exposure in analytical evaluation was (0.711 for the first rater and 0.677 for the second rater). Intra-rater variability between first and second exposure in global evaluation was (<0.001 for the first rater and 0.075 for the second rater).
Conclusion: A simple objective and detailed method to evaluate complete denture insertion procedure was developed, and it showed that both intra-rater and inter-rater agreement were excellent for the analytical method that might overcome errors and subjectivity in evaluation that result from the limitations of global method. Results recommend suitability of using the analytical evaluation to improve reliability between raters.


Keywords: Complete denture, Delivery, Intra-rater agreement, Inter-rater agreement, Variability


» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.19082/7287
Buty, koszulki, spodnie DziecięceAir Jordan

The  most recent editorial (June 2021)

Ethics of Publishing Case Reports: Do We Need Ethics Approval and Patient Consent?

An editorial by Dr. Mehrdad Jalalian

Read more.

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.


To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


Our previous editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

Read more.


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: