Background: Evidence shows an influence relationship between described symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) and emotional state. 

Objective: To determine the relationship between anxiety and depression with GERD in patients referred to the endoscopy unit of Bouali-Sina Hospital in Qazvin. 

Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the endoscopy unit of Bouali-Sina Hospital in Qazvin, Iran, from April 2014 through May 2015. Two hundred individuals (100 patients with GERD and 100 healthy individuals as a control group) were enrolled into the current study. All subjects completed the hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. GERD was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles classification system. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in addition to clinical history of subjects were collected and analyzed using proper statistical methods (independent-samples t-test and AVOVA) and using SPSS version 22.

Results: Among the recruited patients, 50 subjects had erosive esophagitis (ERD) and 50 had non-erosive esophagitis (NERD). The anxiety score was significantly higher in the NERD group than the ERD and control groups (p=0.017; p<0.001). In addition, the anxiety score was significantly higher in the ERD group than the control group (p=0.014). The score of depression was higher in the NERD group than the ERD and the control groups. However, this difference was not statistically significant for the ERD group (p=0.63), but the difference was significant in comparison to the control group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference among the groups regarding age, gender or body mass index (BMI). The number of smokers was significantly higher in the ERD group than the NERD and control groups (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The current study showed that mental factors (anxiety and depression) play important roles in the development of GERD, especially NERD; therefore, it is recommended to consider these factors to select a suitable treatment plan.


Keywords: Depression; Anxiety; Gastro esophageal Reflux Disorder
» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.19082/5107
Air JordansNike

The  most recent editorial (June 2021)

Ethics of Publishing Case Reports: Do We Need Ethics Approval and Patient Consent?

An editorial by Dr. Mehrdad Jalalian

Read more.

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.


To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


Our previous editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

Read more.


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: