Background: Evidence shows an influence relationship between described symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) and emotional state. 

Objective: To determine the relationship between anxiety and depression with GERD in patients referred to the endoscopy unit of Bouali-Sina Hospital in Qazvin. 

Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the endoscopy unit of Bouali-Sina Hospital in Qazvin, Iran, from April 2014 through May 2015. Two hundred individuals (100 patients with GERD and 100 healthy individuals as a control group) were enrolled into the current study. All subjects completed the hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. GERD was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles classification system. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in addition to clinical history of subjects were collected and analyzed using proper statistical methods (independent-samples t-test and AVOVA) and using SPSS version 22.

Results: Among the recruited patients, 50 subjects had erosive esophagitis (ERD) and 50 had non-erosive esophagitis (NERD). The anxiety score was significantly higher in the NERD group than the ERD and control groups (p=0.017; p<0.001). In addition, the anxiety score was significantly higher in the ERD group than the control group (p=0.014). The score of depression was higher in the NERD group than the ERD and the control groups. However, this difference was not statistically significant for the ERD group (p=0.63), but the difference was significant in comparison to the control group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference among the groups regarding age, gender or body mass index (BMI). The number of smokers was significantly higher in the ERD group than the NERD and control groups (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The current study showed that mental factors (anxiety and depression) play important roles in the development of GERD, especially NERD; therefore, it is recommended to consider these factors to select a suitable treatment plan.


Keywords: Depression; Anxiety; Gastro esophageal Reflux Disorder
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July-September 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 3)


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In the second issue of the journal Electronic Physician for 2019, we have several papers including four Randomized Controlled Trials, a model development study, a case report, an editorial, a letter to editor (LTE), and several original research including two studies with qualitative approach. Authors of this issue are from nine countries: Iran, The Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, India, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Jordan. Read more...


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