Background: The main reason for the failure of endodontic therapy is the incomplete knowledge about the anatomical variation of root canals. One of the most important factors that leads to the failure of root canal treatment, is missed and untreated major root canals. 

Objective: with respect to the complexity of mandibular incisors treatment and high prevalence of the second canal, and the possibility of the relationship between the crown size and the extra canal in these teeth, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between crown size and root canal morphology in mandibular incisors with CBCT.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, mandibular permanent incisors were randomly collected in Qazvin City, Iran, and were mounted in eight ternary groups on a plastic slot, using putty molding material.  After preparation of Scot view, the samples were scanned by CBCT NewTom 5G. Afterward, the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions were measured by the software’s measurement tool with a precision within tenths of a millimeter. In the next stage, a multi-planar option and 400% magnification tool of the software were utilized to study axial and cross sectional views of each tooth to determine canal type. Data were analyzed employing one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Levene, independent- samples t-test and Roc curve by SPSS version 20.

Results: The majority of mandibular incisors have a single canal (63.9% of them had type I canal system). In addition, 36.1% of the roots had two canals, among which, type III was the most common. The mean of maximum mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters in type III was significantly bigger than that in type I (p<0.05), but the means of crown size in the two canal types were not significantly different.

Conclusion: Despite increase in mesiodistal and buccolingual dimension in two canal mandibular incisors with type III canal system, their crown sizes (M-D/F-L index) were not significantly different, in comparison to single canal incisors.


Keywords: Crown Size, Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Mandibular Incisor, Root Canal Morphology
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Current Issue

October-December 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 4)


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: