Background: Vesicoureteral reflux is a risk factor for progressive renal damage. In addition to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and open surgical re-implantation, endoscopic sub-mucosal intra-ureteral injection of implant material is a therapeutic alternative that gained a world-wide preference. 

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the implant material, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid, in a cohort of Saudi children with vesicoureteral reflux.

Methods: In this case-series study, 61 patients with vesicoureteral reflux, who were 7 months to 10 years old (mean age 2.6 years), underwent sub-mucosal intra-ureteral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid at our institutions in the period from October 2003 to October 2013. The operative protocol was the same in all institutions. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid was injected submucosally within the intramural ureter (modified STING). Renal ultrasonography was performed to detect the presence of hydronephrosis. At 6 weeks’ fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrograms were used to evaluate the success of the technique. Data were analysed by SPSS version 19 using Pearson Chi square, Fisher's Exact and Cramér's V test.

Results: Reflux was corrected in 44 patients out of 61 (72.13%) and in 60 (75.00%) out of 80 ureteric units.   Statistically, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in success rate of the technique according to gender, age group and unilateral vs. bilateral cases. The success rate was significantly (p=0.025) higher in the lower grades (I-III) (87.50%) compared to grade IV (73.53%) and grade V (50.00%). No complications related to the technique were reported.  The technique had failed in 17 patients (27.87%) or 20 ureters (25.00%).  These cases underwent open surgery.

Conclusion: Sub-mucosal intra-ureteral implantation with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid by the modified STING technique is a simple, safe and effective outpatient procedure for vesicoureteral reflux.


Keywords: Vesicoureteral reflux; VUR; Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid; Dx\HA; Deflux; Modified STING
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