Written by Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Elwy, Ghada Tabl
Parent Category: Year 2017, Volume 9
Category: Volume 9, Issue 3, March 2017
Objective: To determine the effect of the most commonly abused drugs (tramadol and morphine), on acetylcholine esterase (AChE), Na+/K+-ATPase activities and related parameters, Na+ and K+ as biomarkers of neurotoxicity.
Methods: Tramadol - as a weak µ opioid receptor agonist- and morphine - as opiate analgesic drugs, were chosen for the present study. Four series of experimental animals were conducted for either tramadol or morphine: control series; repeated single equal doses (therapeutic dose) series; cumulative increasing doses series and delay (withdrawal) series (96 hours withdrawal period after last administration), at time period intervals 7, 14 and 21 days. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE), Na+/K+-ATPase activities and related parameters, Na+ and K+ were measured in cerebral cortices of experimental rats.
Results: Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in the brain cerebral cortex increased after the administration of therapeutic repeated doses of either tramadol (20 mg/kg b.w.) or morphine (4 mg/kg b.w.) in different groups. The daily intraperitoneal injection of cumulative increasing dose levels of either tramadol 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg or morphine 4, 8 and 12 mg/kg revealed a significant increase in the mean of acetylcholine esterase activities. The withdrawal groups of either tramadol or morphine showed significant decreases in their levels. Na+/K+ ATPase activity in the brain cerebral cortex of either repeated therapeutic doses of tramadol (20 mg/kg) or morphine repeated therapeutic doses (4 mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days at different intervals 7, 14 and 21 days, induced a significant decrease in the levels of Na+/K+-ATPase in all groups. Withdrawal groups showed a significant decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase level. Furthermore, the daily intraperitoneal injection of cumulative increasing dose levels of either tramadol (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.w.) or morphine (4, 8 and12 mg/kg b.w.) induced significant decreases in Na+/K+-ATPase levels in all studied groups. Regarding Na+ and K+, concentrations of either repeated therapeutic doses or cumulative increasing doses at different time intervals, showed different fluctuations in their levels.
Conclusion: The recorded data suggest that both drugs exert potent effects on AChE and Na+/K+-ATPase activities which could contribute to cerebral cortex malfunction including, memory deficits and the decline in cognitive function observed in chronic users.
Tendências do momentoAir Jordan 1
Keywords: Morphine, Tramadol, Acetylcholine esterase (AChE), Na+/ K+-ATPase
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The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.
To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here
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