Background: Early diagnosis of breast cancer, the incidence of which among Iranian women is about a decade earlier than in developed countries, is important. 

Objective: To compare mammography and ultrasonography findings with those of pathology in patients with breast cancer. 

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using medical records of 79 patients with breast malignancies, who were referred to Imam Reza Hospital and private laboratories of Birjand, Iran, from December 2012 to December 2014. The patients’ information was recorded using a checklist, which included name, code, age, ultrasonography, and mammography results and pathology reports. The results of ultrasonography and mammography were compared with pathology findings as the gold standard. SPSS Version 21 was used for data analysis.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.94 ± 11.76 years. The results showed that 74.7%, 16.5%, and 7.6% of the patients had ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and mixed carcinoma, respectively. About 72.5%, 24.6%, and 2.9% of the patients had stage 2, 3, and 1 breast cancer, respectively. In addition, both breasts were involved in 1.3% of the patients. The ultrasound findings were positive and false negative in 97.5% and 2.5% of the cases. Moreover, the mammography results were positive and false negative in 98.7% and 1.3% of the patients. 

Conclusion: This study showed that mammography is the preferred modality in screening breast cancer patients; the use of complementary tests such as ultrasonography is recommended, especially in high-risk women.


Keywords: Biopsy; Breast cancer; Mammography; Ultrasonography
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Current Issue

July-September 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 3)


Previous Issue

In the second issue of the journal Electronic Physician for 2019, we have several papers including four Randomized Controlled Trials, a model development study, a case report, an editorial, a letter to editor (LTE), and several original research including two studies with qualitative approach. Authors of this issue are from nine countries: Iran, The Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, India, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Jordan. Read more...


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

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Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: