Abstract

Introduction: Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children, and defined as an acute inflammatory polyneuropathy. The objective of this study was to assess the clinico-laboratory profile, and outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome in children at Sohag University Hospital. 

Methods: This prospective cohort observational study was conducted in 2014-2015. The included children were subjected to through medical history and detailed systemic and neurological examination. Nerve conduction studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were done for all patients. Follow up was done at three and six months both clinically and by nerve conduction studies.

Results: This study included 50 patients (27 males / 23 females) with median age of 2.92 years. Upper respiratory tract infections were the most common antecedent infections (50%) and the neurological findings were weakness of both lower limbs and pain in all patients (100%) followed by sphincteric dysfunction (26%) while cranial neuropathies were found in 4%. Nerve conduction study revealed that acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy was found in 52% of cases, acute motor axonal neuropathy in 36% of cases, whereas acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy was found in 6% of cases. The outcome  was good in about 78% of cases, Hughes motor scale revealed that 58% were healthy, 18% had minor signs or symptoms, 12% walked without support, 6% walked with support, and 6% were bed ridden.

Conclusion: The outcome was favorable, although a minority of patients suffered neurological deficit. Immediate administration of intravenous immunoglobulin reduced mortality and disability.

 

Keywords: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); Nerve conduction study; Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)
 
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