Introduction: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is alkylating agent and the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for various types of cancer; it causes severe toxicity. The aim of the research was to assess the protective effect of lemon fruit extract (LFE) against the side effects of the anti-cancer drug “cyclophosphamide” (CP). 

Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2015. Thirty male mice were divided into six groups: group A (control): intraperitoneal injection of saline, group B: oral LFE (10ml/kg), group C: intraperitoneal injection of CP (10 mg/kg), group D: intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 mg/kg), group E: intraperitoneal injection of CP (10 mg/kg) and oral LFE (10 ml/kg), and group F: intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 mg/kg) and oral LFE (10 ml/kg). All groups were treated daily for five consecutive days. 

Results: The results of the group treated with the drug C and D was that, in their intestines, the effect was uneven between a severe to a sharp effect, and there was a lack of dense connective tissue and its collagen fibers and fat cells, the intestinal glands or crypt of Lieberkühn appeared few in number and distorted in composition when compared with control A, as the pancreas appeared divided into several lobes containing small numbers of pancreatic Acini, padded with secretory pyramid-shaped cells, although some of them  appeared exaggerated. While treatment in group E and F resulted in the intestines and pancreas appearing to be semi-normal; regarding the pancreas, it showed an observed improvement more than the response of the intestines.

Conclusion: The results support the protective effect of lemon fruit extract against CP-induced intestinal and pancreatic injury.


Keywords: cyclophosphamide, lemon fruit, histopathological changes, intestines, pancreas, mice
» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.14661/1412

Current Issue

July-September 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 3)


Previous Issue

In the second issue of the journal Electronic Physician for 2019, we have several papers including four Randomized Controlled Trials, a model development study, a case report, an editorial, a letter to editor (LTE), and several original research including two studies with qualitative approach. Authors of this issue are from nine countries: Iran, The Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, India, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Jordan. Read more...


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: