Background: Functional renal failure and cardiovascular dysfunction are common complications of liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate cardiac performance, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and fluid status in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis either with or without functional renal failure.

Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed as having decompensated liver cirrhosis were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 30 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis with ascites and with creatinine values ≤ 1.5 mg/dl.  Group 2 included 30 azotemic decompensated cirrhotic patients with diagnostic criteria of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Also, 20 healthy subjects, of matched age and sex to the Group 1 and Group 2 patients, were included in the study as the control group. All patients and normal controls were subjected to clinical examination, laboratory evaluation, ECG, abdominal ultrasonography and echocardiographic studies.

Results: The echocardiographic and ECG data showed significant increase in LAD (P<0.01, P<0.01), AoD (P<0.05, P<0.01), interventricular septum thickness (IVST) (P<0.01, P<0.01), posterior wall thickness (PWT) (P<0.01, P<0.01), EDD (P<0.01, P<0.01), ESD (P<0.05, P<0.01), left ventricular (LV) mass (P<0.01, P<0.01), and Corrected QT (QTc) (P<0.01, P<0.01) interval with significant decrease in SVR (P<0.01, P<0.01). Additionally, there was significant decrease in IVC diameter in both patients groups compared to the control group (P<0.01, P<0.01). 

Conclusion: Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis have low SVR, and Doppler echocardiography provides an easy noninvasive tool to assess this finding. Also, these patients demonstrate small inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter with normal collapsibility, which indicates low effective plasma volume. Measuring IVC diameter and collapsibility are of value in the prediction of intravascular fluid status in liver cirrhosis. This is especially true with renal dysfunction. Early addition of oral vasoconstrictors in decompensated patients may correct the SVR and circulatory dysfunction and hinder HRS occurrence.

Keywords: Fluid status, Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), Inferior vena cava (IVC) collapsibility, Liver cirrhosis, Systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
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Current Issue

October-December 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 4)


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

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Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

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Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: