Background: With the growing global population, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the demands for food and energy. A major portion of the food and energy is produced via agriculture and livestock activities. The objectives of this research are to gather information regarding the demographic features of farmers, previous poisoning, and the extent of farmers' knowledge in the use of pesticides and associated hazards in different counties and villages in Fasa, a city located in the Fars province of Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from March to July 2012 in the Nobandegan and Sheshdeh counties, and villages including Miandeh, Fedshkuyeh, Senan, Rahimabad, and other places in the Fasa suburban countryside. To collect data, an appropriate questionnaire was designed and implemented.

Results: A total of 200 farmers participated in the study. We found that 55% of farmers were illiterate. Approximately 86% of used pesticides were organophosphorus compounds. Around 30% of the farmers used no protective equipment while working with pesticides, and only 22% of farmers had read and understood the instructions on the pesticide containers. 

Conclusion: Given the toxicity and hazards of pesticides and their adverse effects on farmers' health, effective measures should be adopted to decrease the amount of pesticides used. Conducting training programs for farmers may help to reduce pesticide exposure risks.

Keywords: Pesticides, Adverse effects, Poisoning, Agricultural
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October-December 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 4)


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


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Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: