Abstract
Background and objective: There is increasing evidence that the nervous system is in two-way interaction with the immune system. To study the relationship between the opioid and immune systems, the anti-inflammatory effect of naloxone - an opioid receptor antagonist - in the air pouch model as an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis was studied.
Methods: Sterile air (20 and 10 ml) was subcutaneously injected into the back of the animals on days 1 and 3, respectively. On the 6th day, carrageenan was injected into the pouch. Normal saline and different doses of naloxone were injected immediately, as well as 24 and 48 hours after carrageenan in the control and treatment groups, respectively. After 72 hours, granulation tissue was opened, the pouch fluid was collected to determine the volume of exudates, the concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and count of leukocyte. Granulation tissue was extruded and weighed. To assay the angiogenesis, the granulation tissue was homogenized and centrifuged, and the supernatant was filtered by a 0.22µ filter. Hemoglobin concentration was determined by the hemoglobin kit.
Results: Naloxone clearly reduced leukocyte accumulation (p<0.01), exudate volume (p<0.001), granulation tissue weight (p<0.01), and amount of angiogenesis in the granulation tissue (p<0.001). In addition, VEGF and IL-1β levels were decreased significantly (p<0.01) and (p<0.001), respectively. 
Conclusion: Naloxone can reduce inflammatory and angiogenesis parameters in an air pouch inflammatory model. The anti-inflammatory effect is probably related to inhibition of leukocyte accumulation due to decreased concentration of inflammatory cytokines in exudates.
 
Keywords: Naloxone, Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Interleukin-1

 

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Current Issue

Volume 12, issue 2, April-June 2020

 


 

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.

To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


 

The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


 

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Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:


Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: